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Titanium dioxide to degrade pentachlorophenol

Pentachlorophenol is a phenolic compound that was chlorinated. Pentachlorophenol very toxic for our breath, cause dermatitis on skin and more toxic than inorganic solvent.
Pentachlorophenol waste almost dissolvable in water so degradation process is very hard. Some ways have been done to solve biological waste problem, but not efficient enough. For example, active carbon just involve pollutant absorption without decomposition process. Chemical oxidation process can’t decomposition all of organic compound be carbon dioxide and water, and have been used in high concentration waste.
Many century ago, scientist success to describe phenomenon photocatalytic in surface of metal-oxide semiconductor. Firstly, have been issued by Renz in 1921 until 1960, and not responding by scientist. Photocatalytic semiconductor popularity increase since publication Akira Fujishima in Nature magazine was issued in 1972. He was reported decomposition water be oxygen and hydrogen used single crystal TiO2 with input UV light in low energy.
First research, TiO2 have been used as photocatalytic suspension system. Nowadays, the uses TiO2 as photocatalytic is used in thin plate shape, which is immobilization TiO2 to many kinds of supported material like fiber, glass, silica, and titanium plat.


Google Page Creator

Google's Page Creator has some definite potential, but it's beta version needs some work. We took a peek behind the scenes at the website building software and even though we are still not done testing, we do have some initial thoughts from the perspective a website template designer in business for more than 11 years.It's certainly a fast way to create a website for the novice, but the source code jumped out of the screen and slapped me in the face. I believe, ARGH! was my honest to goodness reaction.The generated pages are pure internal CSS with the style sheet code so long, that the page's actual content was far down near the bottom of the page. What is the point of using CSS if you are not going to use it correctly? The use of internal CSS is our biggest complaint with Blogger. > Post your thoughts in our Basic BlogIf validation is important to you, the pages I checked did not validate but then neither does Google's website. I'm sure the source code would shock even the most flexible web designer. But if a person without any web design skills wanted to change the code to fit their needs, they would most certainly be lost. I'm really quite surprised. We have been hearing about Google's Page Creator now for some time and were anxious to see what Big G could crank out given that Big G tends to breathe new technology services. But this one was a disappointment. Granted it is BETA ... so we'll see.So far I didn't see any advertising on the generated pages, but I cannot image that being a long term option for a free web hosting service. I suspect we'll see Adwords on in the near future. So what do you think? Have you tried Google's Page Creator? Do you think this will be just another free web hosting service with a WYSIWYG interface or is this the beginning of a paradigm shift in web development and we hosting?


10 Things You Can Do to Curb Global Warming

Responsible ChoicesThe choices we make and the products we buy test our commitment to maintain a healthy planet. When we burn fossil fuels—such as oil, coal, and natural gas—to run our cars and light our homes, we pump carbon dioxide (CO2) into the air. This thickens the heat-trapping blanket that surrounds the planet, causing global warming.Choosing modern technology can reduce our use of fossil fuels and help protect the planet. These ten steps will help curb global warming, save you money, and create a safer environment for the future.oneDrive Smart!A well-tuned car with properly inflated tires burns less gasoline—cutting pollution and saving you money at the pump. If you have two cars, drive the one with better gas mileage whenever possible. Better yet, skip the drive and take public transit, walk, or bicycle when you can.oneBuy Local and OrganicDid you know the average American meal travels more than 1,500 miles from the farm to your plate? Think of all the energy wasted and pollution added to the atmosphere - not to mention all the pesticides and chemicals used to grow most produce! So go to your local organic farmer to get your fruits and veggies.oneSupport clean, renewable energy.Renewable energy solutions, such as wind and solar power, can reduce our reliance on coal-burning power plants, the largest source of global warming pollution in the United States. Call your local utility and sign up for renewable energy. If they don't offer it, ask them why not?Also, support a national renewable electricity standard (RES). The Energy Bill signed in 2007 lacked key components that address our energy security and global warming emissions: a renewable electricity standard of 15% by 2020 and a tax package that will provide investment incentives for clean energy alternatives. Use our action center to urge your members of congress to support the renewable electricity standard and tax package!oneReplace incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs.Especially those that burn the longest each day. Compact fluorescents produce the same amount of light as normal bulbs, but use about a quarter of the electricity and last ten times as long. Each switch you make helps clean the air today, curb global warming, and save you money on your electricity bill.oneSaving energy at home is good for the environment and for your wallet.Start with caulking and weather-stripping on doorways and windows. Then adjust your thermostat and start saving. For each degree you lower your thermostat in the winter, you can cut your energy bills by 3 percent. Finally, ask your utility company to do a free energy audit of your home to show you how to save even more money.oneBecome a smart water consumer.Install low-flow showerheads and faucets and you'll use half the water without decreasing performance. Then turn your hot water heater down to 120°F and see hot-water costs go down by as much as 50 percent.oneBuy energy-efficient electronics and appliances.Replacing an old refrigerator or an air conditioner with an energy-efficient model will save you money on your electricity bill and cut global warming pollution. Look for the Energy Star label on new appliances or visit their website at to find the most energy-efficient products.onePlant a Tree, protect a forest.Protecting forests is a big step on the road to curbing global warming. Trees "breathe in" carbon dioxide, but slash-and-burn farming practices, intensive livestock production, and logging have destroyed 90 percent of the native forests in the United States. And you can take action in your own backyard — planting shade trees around your house will absorb CO2, and slash your summer air-conditioning bills.oneReduce! Reuse! Recycle!Producing new paper, glass, and metal products from recycled materials saves 70 to 90 percent of the energy and pollution, including CO2, that would result if the product came from virgin materials. Recycling a stack of newspapers only 4 feet high will save a good-sized tree. recycled products!oneMount a local campaign against global warming.Educate your community about how it can cut global warming pollution. Support measures at the national, state, and local level that:* Make automobiles go further on a gallon of gas;* Accelerate the use of clean, renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind;* Increase energy efficiency and conservation; and* Preserve forests around the world.Interested in helping your city become a "cool city"? It's easy! Click here for details and you'll be on your way to helping your city be Cool!


What is Ubuntu?

Ubuntu is a community developed operating system that is perfect for laptops, desktops and servers. Whether you use it at home, at school or at work Ubuntu contains all the applications you'll ever need, from word processing and email applications, to web server software and programming tools. Ubuntu is and always will be free of charge. You do not pay any licensing fees. You can download, use and share Ubuntu with your friends, family, school or business for absolutely nothing.We issue a new desktop and server release every six months. That means you'll always have the the latest and greatest applications that the open source world has to offer.Ubuntu is designed with security in mind. You get free security updates for at least 18 months on the desktop and server. With the Long Term Support (LTS) version you get three years support on the desktop, and five years on the server. There is no extra fee for the LTS version, we make our very best work available to everyone on the same free terms. Upgrades to new versions of Ubuntu are and always will be free of charge.Everything you need on one CD, which provides a complete working environment. Additional software is available online.The graphical installer enables you to get up and running quickly and easily. A standard installation should take less than 25 minutes.Once installed your system is immediately ready-to-use. On the desktop you have a full set of productivity, internet, drawing and graphics applications, and games.On the server you get just what you need to get up and running and nothing you don't.What does Ubuntu mean? Ubuntu is an African word meaning 'Humanity to others', or 'I am what I am because of who we all are'. The Ubuntu distribution brings the spirit of Ubuntu to the software world.


10 Advantages of Ubuntu Over Vista

I converted from Vista to Ubuntu a little over 2 months ago and am soooooo happy with it, best decision of my life. I am going to tell you my top 10 advantages of it over Windows Vista. Please remember these are my own opinions, if you have more advantages and indeed any disadvantages (if you can find any) then please post them as comments.

1) Eye Candy If I am completely honest, the biggest reason why I converted was the eye candy. Sure Windows Vista comes with lots of it, but it just isn’t as good. Ubuntu 7.04 comes with just a few of the effects seen a lot nowadays, these effects include the rotating cube desktop and wobbly windows, it just makes it much nicer to use. I have installed Beryl on my computer to give much more eye candy. I base a lot of my judgments on looks first, features later.

2) Easy to Install ApplicationsInstalling new programs in Ubuntu is a doddle, far easier than in Windows, because there is one program that basically gives you access to most applications available to Ubuntu, simply click the program you want and it will install, you don’t need to accept agreements because its all open source so there is no need to click Next 20 times before the program is installed. Simply select the program and click OK, wallah! done.

3) SecureIn Windows Vista, to change a setting requires a ridiculous amount of dialog boxes and passwords, in Ubuntu, you are never logged in as an administrator (root), you are logged in as a simple user, you can change options that are only applicable to your user area but for changing options that affect the system you are required to input the administrator password, one dialog and you’re in, simple and secure. There is also the added bonus that there are very few viruses for Linux, I haven’t ever come across one yet so you can feel safe, imagine not having any virus protection software installed in Windows, there is no need for it in Linux, freedom from the threat of losing all your data.

4) Easy to change optionsUbuntu comes with a control panel but also comes with a menu next to the Applications menu where you simply select the thing you want to change, be it the Desktop background or the network settings. Everything on the windows that appear is simple and there are just the options you need so it is easy to change the options.

5) CommunityThe community behind Linux, especially Ubuntu is what attracts many people to the operating system. People in the Linux community are mainly ex-Windows users so they know what it feels like to be new to an operating system, so they are happy to help. Whenever I had and have a problem with Ubuntu I simply post on the Ubuntu forum and within minutes there are answers to the problems. I never got put on hold or had to phone up customer service and wait for hours if I had any problems.

6) FreeEverything about Ubuntu is free, the operating system (you can even have them send you a free copy of the operating system, they even pay the postage charges), the software installed is free (including all the software you can download) any help and support is free. The whole experience is 100% free, because it is open source. Open source means that you can distribute and even edit the code behind the program.

7) Simple NetworkingThe other day I was amazed with how easy it was to connect my Ubuntu laptop to my Windows XP PC. I simply plugged in my laptop to the network hub and it immediately connected with no problems, I didn’t even have to configure it.

8) Mozilla FirefoxOK, I know that you can use Firefox on Vista as well, but on Ubuntu, there is no Internet Explorer that keeps popping up and cant get rid of. Mozilla Firefox is the number one web browser (remember, my opinions).

9) FastWindows Vista is slow and takes up a lot of resources which means you need a pretty decent computer to run it, I know with my 1GHz computer with 512MB of RAM it was too slow to work with. Ubuntu is just fast, it doesn’t slow down in performance when it has been on for a couple of hours, it just keeps on going and everything opens literally a second after you click the icon, and closes when you click the X, with Windows Vista you have to wait for like 30 seconds before a program starts and try shutting down a program like Word 2007 or Visual Studio after using it for a couple of hours, it takes forever.

10) UpdatesUbuntu gets updated every 6 months, well as close as it can do, and whenever I turn my computer on there are updates for the programs installed. Compare that to Windows, how often does that get updated, well the 5 years between Windows XP and Vista sort of answers that question.So there you go, my top 10 advantages of Ubuntu over Windows Vista. As you can probably see I am very much into Ubuntu so obviously I am going to make Windows Vista look really bad compared to it, but it didn’t take much work to do that, so what does that say? Windows Vista is for some people and good luck to them (or you, if that is you), but Ubuntu offers a worthy alternative for all. Please leave your comments, I would like to hear from you.


Top 10 Linux commands for Absolute Newbies

So you’ve installed a flavor of Linux such as Ubuntu or you have shell access to a Linux system and you want to start doing some damage. The admins at compiled 10 commands that every Newbie Linux user should definitely know to start being effective.
1) lsThis basic command is your eyeball into the filesystem. Use it to list the contents of a directory.
A) To view details such as the file permissions, user and group owner, last time file was modified pass the l option as suchls -l
B) You can search for filenames by using wildcards. To list files that start with the letter f, usels -l f*
2) findWhere did you save that file? Use the find command to find your files. The find command will search where you want it to search and find directories or files that match conditions such as name, date last accessed, file size and more. It has got many abilities, and they’re all listed in the man page.To search for files starting with the letter f recursively starting from the / root directory use the followingfind / -name f*
3) manWhat did we mean by the man page? man stands for manual, so “man page” really means it’s manual page. Most linux commands have manual pages that describe how the command is utilized. So you can usually type man to view it’s manual page. Great when you’re stuck and don’t know what the command is for or how it’s used. You use it by passing a command line as an option like thisman vi
4) viThe editor of choice for serious linux users [sorry Emacs fans ;-)]. Use the “man vi” command to read details on this prince of editors. Maybe this is why I love editing and coding in linux, I never have to lift my hands to do anything. Here’s a quick and dirty list of vi commands for you to start using.
A) If you notice on your keyboard the letters (H,J,K,L) are adjacent to each other, which makes them ideal keys to use for navigating this editor.a) l (move right)b) h (move left)c) j (move down)d) k (momve up)
B) YY - type in Y twice to copy a line
C) DD - type in D twice to cut a line.
D) P - type in P to paste a line.
E) :q! - quit without saving
F) :wq! - save and quit
G) :w! - save5)
catHow do you view the contents of a file? You can let the “cat” of the bag with the cat command! HA! Here’s how you can use the commandcat filename.txt6) moreWhat if there the file you cat fills more than 1 screen? You can pipe the cat command into more which will allow you to view the contents one screenfull at a filename.txt more7) grepAnd what if you need to search for certain phrases or words in a file? And for this we can use the grep command. Say we want to search for all the occurances of the word “passwd” in a filename, we can use the following commandgrep “passwd” filename.txtIf there are matches, the lines containing “passwd” will be printed.chmodYou have a script that you need to run, and oh no it won’t run? By utilizing the “ls -la” command you learned you can see if the script has execute permissions. If it doesn’t you may give it execute permission by runningchmod +x scriptfileAnd of course, you can run the scriptfile if it is a script by running it with a ./ preceding the filename on the shell command line like so./scriptfile9) psWhat are you running in the background? How can you tell? By using the “ps” command of course you can view What processes are running under your account.10) cp, mv, rmHow do you copy, move or remove a file? There’s actually three different commands for each of these functions.
A) copycp oldfilename.txt newfilename.txt
B) movemv oldfilename.txt newfilename.txt
C) deleterm oldfilename.txt


How Old Is That Plane You're Boarding?

Travelers are confronting another miserable day at the nation's airports today, as American Airlines anticipates more than 900 cancellations. But American's decision to cancel flights today in addition to the more than 1,000 flights it canceled Wednesday for last-second inspections is just one of many headaches for travelers -- and for a struggling airline industry -- already facing a steady stream of problems.
Now industry experts say several of the airlines' problems are rooted in one underlying issue: aging planes.
Those recently reinspected are some of the oldest planes that U.S. airlines are flying today. While the planes may be safe, the older they get the more likely they are to have maintenance problems, causing another catastrophic delay.
"They've been putting off modernizing the fleet," said Ray Neidl, an airline analyst with Calyon Securities. "At some point it's going to put the U.S. carriers at a big disadvantage to foreign carriers. It's going to drive up their operating costs because these aircraft tend to be less fuel-efficient and require greater and greater maintenance."


Who Will Create the First Green Island?

The race is on to see who can create the Caribbean's first completely green island. In the running: the Turks and Caicos government, private developer David Skar and actor Leonardo DiCaprio. All have plans in the works – at varying stages – to green up their respective Caribbean isles.
DiCaprio, long a champion of all causes environmental, snatched up his own private island just off the coast of Belize back in 2005: 104-acre Blackadore Caye. According to published reports, the actor envisioned an environmentally sustainable resort, or possibly an entire community, on his private paradise from the start. Development was rumored to have started late last year.
DiCaprio's publicist, Ken Sunshine, declined to comment on the status of the project at the moment, saying there would be more to report in the next few months.
But the other two contenders aren't keeping so mum on their plans. Last month Turks and Caicos announced that it will transform its largely undeveloped Salt Cay Island into the first to be fully environmentally sustainable.

"It's a conscious decision and very historic," Turks and Caicos Premier Joseph Misick said. "Once we see what works, we'll spread it to other islands as well." What works for Salt Cay will be slightly different than for STAR Island, which is privately owned and currently home to no one except those stationed there to build out the new eco-Shangri La.
Just 2.5 square miles, Salt Cay is already home to about 60 to 100 families. This means the Turks and Caicos government has a slightly different challenge: "greening up" Salt Cay for tourism, but not leaving its current residents in the dust. At the moment there isn't much tourism – or any industry – on Salt Cay. "Time has stood still," as Misick described it. For about 300 years, the island's primary focus was also its namesake: the production of salt from brine. But soon that focus will switch to the courting of tourism. Green tourism. "Going green is more expensive, but in the long run it's better," Misick said. "We want to lead the way and show with Salt Cay that you can develop and be environmentally sustainable."
Plans are in the works for two new resort hotels and an 18-hole golf course – all of which will run according to the new green energy standards. Misick expects the $500 million project to finish in the next three to four years.
As for Salt Cay's current citizens, Misick says they will benefit from the switch to green as much as the future tourists – especially with the Turks and Caicos government's subsidizing the conversion of all homes to the new alternative energy source and even foot the power bill for a brief transitional period.
While the government has not yet decided exactly what that source will be, Misick says it will likely be either wind or solar power generated from an energy park to be built on the island. All cars will run on electric or hybrid power as well.
Meanwhile, other Caribbean governments are watching closely. The 10th Annual Caribbean Conference on Sustainable Tourism Development is taking place this month, hosted by Turks and Caicos and the Caribbean Tourism Organization. Starting April 28, travel industry insiders will converge on the Beaches Turks & Caicos Resort & Spa – a Green Globe Certified hotel – to help each other up the learning curve of green tourism.
to be continued...


21's a Bust? Seven States Debate Lowering Drinking Age

Is 21 a bust when it comes to drinking?
Lawmakers in seven states are actively considering legislation that would lower the legal drinking age.
Military Rights or Drinking Age Bill?
State pols in Kentucky, Wisconsin and South Carolina have introduced legislation that would lower the drinking age only for military personnel, while Missouri, South Dakota, Vermont and Minnesota are considering more expansive measures that would lower the drinking age for the general population.
"These people set themselves apart," said Rep. David Floyd of Kentucky, who supports the state lowering the drinking age to 18, and believes the responsibility that enlistees assume with military service demonstrates their ability to make mature decisions when it comes to alcohol.
Floyd looks at his efforts to lower Kentucky's drinking age as more of a military bill than a drinking bill, and would be opposed to expanding the bill to include nonmilitary personnel. Highway Funds Risked
Legislators, like Floyd, who are proponents of legally lowering the drinking age, are putting their state's highway funds at risk.
Each state contemplating lowering the drinking age could stand to lose up to 10 percent of its federal road money. In 1984, Congress passed the Uniform Drinking Age Act, which was designed to reduce car accident deaths among young people by setting the minimum drinking age at 21 and threatening states with the loss of federal highway funds if they did not comply.
Since the '80s, groups like Mothers Against Drunk Driving and have cited research for their continued support of 21 as the legal drinking age.
According to the National Institutes of Health, alcohol-related traffic deaths have decreased across the board with the greatest proportional declines among people 16 to 20 years old.
NIH studies also revealed that teenagers who began drinking before age 15 are four times more likely to develop alcohol dependence during their lifetimes than those who started drinking at age 21 or later.


Sex, Murder, Tentacles -- Octopuses have it all

Researchers say wild octopuses are far from the shy,
unromantic loners their captive brethren appear to be.

SAN FRANCISCO, California (AP) -- Marine biologists studying wild octopuses have found a kinky and violent society of jealous murders, gender subterfuge and once-in-a-lifetime sex. The study by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, who journeyed off the coast of Indonesia found that wild octopuses are far from the shy, unromantic loners their captive brethren appear to be.
The scientists watched the Abdopus aculeatus octopus, which are the size of an orange, for several weeks and published their findings recently in the journal Marine Biology.
They witnessed picky, macho males carefully select a mate, then guard their newly domesticated digs so jealously they would occasionally use their 8-to-10-inch tentacles to strangle a romantic rival.
The researchers also observed smaller "sneaker" male octopuses put on feminine airs, such as swimming girlishly near the bottom and keeping their male brown stripes hidden in order to win unsuspecting conquests.
And size does matter -- but not how you'd think.
"If you're going to spend time guarding a female, you want to go for the biggest female you can find because she's going to produce more eggs," said UC Berkeley biologist Roy Caldwell, who co-wrote the study. "It's basically an investment strategy."
Shortly after the female gives birth, about a month after conception, the mother and father die, researchers said.
"It's not the sex that leads to death," said Christine Huffard, the study's lead author. "It's just that octopuses produce offspring once during a very short lifespan of a year."

adobe from


Olympic Torch Heads off on World Tour as Protests Planned

BEIJING (AFP) - The Olympic torch headed for Kazakhstan Tuesday on the first leg of an epic world tour designed to drum up enthusiasm for the Beijing Games, but also certain to draw anti-China protests.
A chartered Air China plane took off at around 10:00 am (0200 GMT) carrying the torch from Beijing to the Kazakh city of Almaty, where the first leg of the relay will be run on Wednesday, according to the Beijing Olympic organising committee.
Sending the torch on its way with pomp and fanfare, China staged an elaborate ceremony in central Tiananmen Square on Monday attended by top leaders including President Hu Jintao and his number two Xi Jinping.

International Olympic Committee (IOC) chief Jacques Rogge, in a speech delivered to the gathering that was closed to the general public, said the torch would spread Olympic "magic" around the world. But for pro-Tibet activists, human rights groups, and groups seeking to end the humanitarian crisis in Darfur, the torch relay presents an ideal protest platform.
Dubbed the "journey of harmony," the relay is the longest ever, lasting 130 days and covering 137,000 kilometres (85,000 miles), offering ample opportunity for demonstrations.
One likely issue is Tibet, whose government-in-exile says up to 140 people have died in a crackdown on recent anti-China unrest there, while Beijing puts the death toll at 20.
Rights groups are already focusing on the London leg on Sunday, then Paris on Monday and San Francisco, the only stop in the United States, next Wednesday, April 9.

Anne Holmes, acting director of the London-based Free Tibet Campaign, said feelings were running high ahead of the British leg.
"We will have a presence. Our plan is to do something peaceful to make our point," she said.
The relay is billed as the most ambitious of all time with the "high point" being an ascent of Mount Everest in May and several potential hotspots along the route, including a controversial Tibet leg in June.
Campaign groups are also planning protests along the 40,000 kilometre route in China itself, but officials here and in Tibet, where the torch is expected to be in mid-June, are confident there will be no security breaches, even during the ascent of Everest.
"To our knowledge, some separatists from within and outside China are seeking to sabotage the Olympic torch relay within Tibet," Baema Chilain, vice chairman of the Tibetan regional government, told Chinese reporters last week.
"We are confident and capable of ensuring the security of the relay and taking it to the top of the peak."
But outside China the situation will be different. Already protesters defied tight security to disrupt the torch-lighting ceremony in Ancient Olympia last week.
China branded the protests in Greece "shameful" and has put pressure on cities along the international route to ensure smooth progress of the torch.
In an editorial on Tuesday, the China Daily denounced all efforts to disrupt the event.
"Sensational as they are, the calls to politicise the Olympics are a blasphemy against the Olympic spirit," it said.


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